Hazard identification and risk assessment (HIRA) is a proactive process of controlling a risk. No one wants any surprises in getting the job done. That’s why we identify the potential hazard of all our routine and non-routine work and assess the risk arising out of it and control it. Keep it structured by documenting it and use it as needed and review it from time to time.
HIRA is a systematic tool that helps in identifying the hazards of work and assessing or analysing the risks arising out of them and bringing them to an acceptable level of risk.
Objective of the HIRA Module
After the complete reading of this article, you will understand how to carry out your work safely by assessing the risks after identifying the hazards before conducting your routine or non-routine activities.
HIRA Reference Standards and Requirements
ISO 45001 (2018) – Clause 6.1.2: Hazard Identification and Assessment of Risks and Opportunities.
ISO 45001 (2018) – Clause 8.1.2: Eliminating Hazards and Reducing Risks
ISO 31000 (2018): Risk management – Guidelines
IS 15656 (2006): Hazard Identification and Risk Analysis (HIRA)
HIRA Flow Chart
Basic steps of the HIRA
- Team formation & Collection of information of Job
- Hazards Identification
- Identify the associated Risks with existing control measures.
- Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the Risk.
- Control of Risk up to acceptable Limit.
- Documentation and review.
HIRA Team Formation & Task Identification
The HIRA team should be formed keeping in mind the difficulty of the job and task. The members of this team should be experienced and have complete knowledge about the work, and they should have knowledge about Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment process. It is also necessary to have the participation of supervisor and workers working in the team.
Identifying The Task
Task is a sequence of steps of activities with the help of which a job is completed. It is important to write the tasks in the order of sequential major events, but you will remember each step should tell what will done not how and start every step with action word (cut, weld, remove, handling etc.) and completing with naming word which action will done. (Cutting MS plate, Handling pipe etc.)
The main purpose of hazard recognition is to proactively identify a source of energy, situation or act that has the potential to harm us or our health while working in the workplace.
To find the hazard, one should mainly look in these five areas. it can be easily remembered by “MEEPS”
M – Material (Hazard presents in Physical condition)
E – Equipment (Hazard presents in Physical condition)
E- Environment (Hazard presents in Physical condition)
P- People (Behaviour’s category of Hazards)
S- Systems (Unsafe Act with behaviour’s Hazards)
Types of Hazards Energy and its source
Project Site Eighteen Top Hazards
- Fire from inflammable materials
- Unsafe scaffolds
- Unsafe working platforms
- Open Edges
- Unsafe electrical connections and equipment
- Unsafe excavations
- Unsafe cantilever loading platforms
- Struck by foreign body
- Falling objects
- Unstable/ unsafe structural members
- Overloaded vehicle and forklifts
- Unstable mobile crane
- Unsafe lifting operations
- Unsafe working at height
- Unguarded machinery
- Unsafe access
- Hazards related to slips, trips, and falls
- Unsafe storage and handling of gas cylinders
The main reason for risk assessment is to evaluate the hazard which either remains or is present in various activities while working in the organization, exposure to which has an adverse effect on our health.
The main purpose of risk assessment or analysis is that by qualitative and quantitative analysis of the risk arising from exposure to the present hazard, the hazard is removed or controlled by appropriate controls to bring the risk to an acceptable level.
Qualitative Analysis of Risk:
Risk level = LC, BC, IPC (Legal, Business, Interested party Concern) (Yes/No)
Quantitative Analysis of Risk:
Risk is measured by likelihood (Probably/Occurrence) and its impact (consequences/ Severity) with the existing adequacy/ failure of the controls.
Risk level/rating = Occurrence x Severity (By using risk matrix)
Risk Matrix Sample Chart
Also called occurrence or likelihood, the Y axis pertains the component of probability level are as follows:
- Almost certain
Risk Impact :
Also called severity or consequences, the X axis pertains the component of impact level are as follows:
Calculating The Risk by Sample Risk Matrix (5×5) :
Finally risk ratings are coming from risk matrix as follows –
- Very Low – Acceptable Risk
- Low- Acceptable Risk
- Medium – Un Acceptable Risk
- High – Un Acceptable Risk
- Very High – Un Acceptable Risk
- Extreme – Un Acceptable Risk
Now we are going to control the unacceptable risk up to accepting level by the hierarchy of risk control.
(Criteria of Qualitative and quantitative risk accepting and nonaccepting risk rating must define in the process of HIRA by the management)
HIRA Risk Controls and its effectiveness
Risk Control element effectiveness
- Elimination & Substitution: By remove/ replace the hazard – Effectiveness 100%
- Engineering control: Create boundary between human and hazard – Effectiveness 40 -99 %
- Administrative control: By using and implementation of Law, policy, regulation, process, SOP/SMP/OCP/WI/Checklist etc. – Effectiveness 20-40%
- Personal protective equipment: By providing PPEs to protect – Effectiveness 1-20%
Finally, you will always ensure all risk should be control at acceptable level with existing control measures before starting of the related job or activities.
Hazard identification and Risk assessment shall be reviewed at least once in a year to keep this information up to date. Whereas it is necessary to review the HIRA after making any changes in Activity, Hazard, Risk and Control. It is necessary to assess the risk when some changes take place.
- During changes from normal operation.
- New or modified process/ installation.
- Changes in raw materials, chemicals etc.
- During expansion, contraction, restructuring.
- New or modified legislation etc.
- Incident investigation findings on gaps in HIRA.
- Incident trend records / Audit findings etc.
- New information/inputs from interested parties.
Download Standard HIRA sample with Format
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